Last updated: September 14th, 2018


There are many events that are fired throughout the applications lifecycle if they meet the requirements.

A current list of events fired are:


  • UserConfirmed
  • UserLoggedIn
  • UserLoggedOut
  • UserRegistered
  • UserProviderRegistered


  • UserCreated
  • UserDeactivated
  • UserDeleted
  • UserPasswordChanged
  • UserPermanentlyDeleted
  • UserReactivated
  • UserRestored
  • UserUpdated
  • UserConfirmed
  • UserUnconfirmed
  • UserSocialDeleted
  • RoleCreated
  • RoleDeleted
  • RoleUpdated

The event stubs are found in the app\Events directory and are registered in the EventServiceProvider using the Event Subscriber feature of Laravel.

The event listeners are found in the app\Listeners directory.


Currently, all the subscriber events do is log when the user performs the event being fired. This is meant to be extended by you to do whatever you want.

The events are fired using the Laravel event() helper throughout the application.

When the event helper is called with the event class, the objects needed to process the event are passed through, which are caught in the constructor of the Event classes themselves, and passed through to the listener as a property on the $event variable. (This is default Laravel behavior and not specific to this application).


Besides the default PHP Exception class, there is one custom exception that gets thrown called GeneralException.

This exception does nothing special except act as a way to change the default exception functionality when calling it.

Any custom exceptions live in the app\Exceptions directory.

Anytime you throw this exception, it will not display a "Whoops" error. Instead, it will take the error into a session variable and redirect the user to the previous page and display the message in a bootstrap danger alert box.

If a regular PHP Exception is thrown, it will still get caught and the default functionality will takeover.

Example order of events would be:

  1. User tries to delete the administrator account.
  2. Repository says this is not allowed and throws a GeneralException with the text explaining the reason.
  3. The Handler class catches the exception and redirects the user back with old input.
  4. A session variable called flash_danger is set with the exception text.
  5. The page is rendered and a file called messages.blade.php checks for this session variable, and displays the proper bootstrap alert with the provided text.

Note: The withFlashDanger($text) is some Laravel magic that is parsed into with('flash_danger', $text). This functionality exists in many places around the Laravel Framework.

Note: In the case of the request classes, the default functionality when validation fails is to redirect back with errors:

From the Laravel Documentation:

"If validation fails, a redirect response will be generated to send the user back to their previous location. The errors will also be flashed to the session so they are available for display. If the request was an AJAX request, a HTTP response with a 422 status code will be returned to the user including a JSON representation of the validation errors."


The app\Http\Composers directory holds all view composers.

There are 2 composers that ship with the boilerplate:

  • GlobalComposer: Variables sent to every view.
  • SidebarComposer: Variables sent to views containing a sidebar.

The composer classes themselves are registered in the app\Providers\ComposerServiceProvider class.

The GlobalComposer binds the variable $logged_in_user to every view.

If the user is logged in, it will be an app\Models\Auth\User object, if they are not it will be false.


The only stock route file modified is routes\web.php

Lets look at web.php, line by line:

Route::get('lang/{lang}', 'LanguageController@swap');

The first line gets envoked anytime the user chooses a language from the language picker dropdown. The LanguageController's swap method switches the language code in the session and refreshes the page for it to take effect.

Route::group(['namespace' => 'Frontend', 'as' => 'frontend.'], function () {
    includeRouteFiles(__DIR__ . '/frontend/');

This section registers all of the frontend routes, such as login, register, etc.

Key Points:

  • The namespaces of the routes indicate the folder structure. In the above case the routes that will be included live in routes\frontend.
  • The as property prepends the value to all routes inside the closure, so in the above case all included route names will be prepended with frontend..
  • The includeRouteFiles() is a helper function located in app\helpers.php and autoloaded by composer. (Learn about the helpers here). This takes all files in the specified directory and includes them in the closure so you can add new routes without having to touch the web.php routes file.

Route::group(['namespace' => 'Backend', 'prefix' => 'admin', 'as' => 'admin.', 'middleware' => 'admin'], function () {
    includeRouteFiles(__DIR__ . '/backend/');

This section registers all of the backend routes, such as admin dashboard, user management, etc.

It is nearly identical as the frontend routes with the addition of the admin middleware and prefix.

Key Points:

  • The namespaces of the routes indicate the folder structure. In the above case the routes that will be included live in routes\backend.
  • The as property prepends the value to all routes inside the closure, so in the above case all included route names will be prepended with admin..
  • The prefix property prepends the value before all of the URL's of the routes inside the closure, so in the above case all route URL's will be prepended with admin/.
  • The includeRouteFiles() is a helper function located in app\helpers.php and autoloaded by composer. (Learn about the helpers here). This takes all files in the specified directory and includes them in the closure so you can add new routes without having to touch the web.php routes file.
  • The admin middleware is specified in app\Http\Kernel.php and states that anyone trying to access the routes in the following closure must:
    • Be logged in
    • Have the view-backend permission associated with one of their roles or by itself.

Note: Administrator should get all permissions so you do not have to specify the administrator role everywhere.

Note: Most route resources use Laravel's Route/Model Binding which you will see as well in the controller methods.

For more information about the permission middleware included in the admin middleware, see middleware and Access Control.


All of the controllers live in the default Laravel controller location of app\Http\Controllers and follow a namespacing convention of the folders they're in.

The controllers are very clean, so there is not much to say, some key points and different sections to read about are:

  • All controller methods use injected Request Classes to both validate and act as a second security check after the middleware.
  • All database logic is extracted out to Repositories.
  • Controllers are only comprised of CRUD methods, any other methods have been extracted to other controllers for cleanliness.
  • Any data table has its own dedicated controller.
  • Any data being bound or returned to views are using Laravel magic with() method just like elsewhere in the application.
    • Example: withUser($user) is converted to with('user', $user)


Laravel Boilerplate ships with 2 additional middleware out of the box.

There is also one extra middleware group:


The LocaleMiddleware is appended to the web middleware stack and runs on each request.

It takes care of:

  • Checking to see if localization is turned on in the config file.
  • Setting the session locale code.
  • Setting the PHP locale code.
  • Setting the Carbon library locale code.
  • Checking to see if the required language is a "Right-to-Left" language and sets a session variable to be used elsewhere in the system.


The password expires middleware forces the user to change their password after X number of days if specified in the access config file's password_expires_days property. You can disable it by setting it to false.

Middleware Groups

Laravel Boilerplate currently ships with one additional middleware group called admin.

The admin middleware is specified in app\Http\Kernel.php and states that anyone trying to access the routes in the following closure must:

  • Be logged in
  • Have the view-backend permission associated with one of their roles.
  • Be subject to being forced to change your password after X number of days.

It currently wraps all backend routes by default.

Note: If you remove the admin middleware from the backend routes, anyone will be able to access the backend unless you specify elsewhere.


Any controller method throught the application that either needs validation or a security check, will have its own injected Request class.

App requests are stored in the app\Http\Request folder and their namespaces match the folder structure.

Example Request

We are going to look at the store method of the app\Http\Controllers\Backend\Auth\User\UserController to see what's going on.

public function store(StoreUserRequest $request)

    return redirect()->route('admin.auth.user.index')->withFlashSuccess(__('alerts.backend.users.created'));

Disregard what's inside the method and instead look at the parameter list.

The StoreUserRequest is being injected to the controller, you do not have to do anything as it is parsed by Laravel automatically, and before the code inside the method even runs.

The request itself looks like this:

class StoreUserRequest extends FormRequest
     * Determine if the user is authorized to make this request.
     * @return bool
    public function authorize()
        return $this->user()->isAdmin();

     * Get the validation rules that apply to the request.
     * @return array
    public function rules()
        return [
            'first_name'     => 'required|max:191',
            'last_name'  => 'required|max:191',
            'email'    => ['required', 'email', 'max:191', Rule::unique('users')],
            'timezone' => 'required|max:191',
            'password' => 'required|min:6|confirmed',
            'roles' => 'required|array',

As you can see it does two things:

  • It make sure the user is an administrator.
  • It validates the incoming request.

If the authorization fails the user will be redirected back with a message stating they do not have the required permissions.

If the validation fails the default Laravel functionality takes over which is:

"If validation fails, a redirect response will be generated to send the user back to their previous location. The errors will also be flashed to the session so they are available for display. If the request was an AJAX request, a HTTP response with a 422 status code will be returned to the user including a JSON representation of the validation errors."

Any controller method that needs to validate data or permission should use a request class for an extra layer of security.

Note: This project uses more general permissions for CRUD operations, meaning the default requests for a manage-users permission would be:

  • ManageUserRequest - for any requests that do not have validation but want to assure the user can manage-users
  • StoreUserRequest - for creating a user and assuring the user can manage-users
  • UpdateUserRequest - for updating a user and assuring the user can manage-users

If you were to get more granular, and have separate permissions for all stages of CRUD, you may have controller methods that are injecting the following request classes:

  • ViewUserRequest - auth()->can('view-users')
  • StoreUserRequest - auth()->can('store-users')
  • EditUserRequest - auth()->can('edit-users')
  • UpdateUserRequest - auth()->can('update-users')
  • DeleteUserRequest - auth()->can('delete-users')

Learn more about Laravel request classes here.


Models in Laravel Boilerplate live in the app\Models directory instead of the root for organizational purposes.

The folder structure of the Model indicates its namespace as always.

The majority of the models share the same characteristics:

  • The $table property houses the table name, whether static or pulling from a config file.
  • The $fillable property defines the columns that can be mass assigned. This is preferred over guarded as it is more specific.
  • Some models have a $hidden property to hide certain information from being displayed, in such ways as in an API.
  • Some models have a $dates property to cast certain columns as Carbon objects, such as when using the Laravel SoftDeletes trait.
  • Many models have traits that extend or include other functionality, see below.


If a model has any custom attributes, they are held as traits in an Attributes folder of the current model directory.

This is also where the system builds the action buttons for each object type, if applicable. See Action Buttons.


If a model has any relationships, they are held as traits in an Relationships folder of the current model directory.


If a model has any scopes, they are held as traits in an Scopes folder of the current model directory.


Laravel Boilerplate ships with a few Models that utilize the Notifiable trait, and in turn there are a few notifications that get sent.

  • UserNeedsConfirmation - Send when a user registers and email confirmation is on.
  • UserNeedsPasswordReset- Send when the user requests a password reset.

All notifications are stored in the app\Notifications directory by default.

All notifications are self-explanatory, for more information view the Laravel Documentation.


Service Providers are classes that sort of "bootstrap" your application. Laravel ships with many, there are some new ones, and some default ones have been modified.


The following modifications have been made to the default AppServiceProvider:

  • The boot method does the same checks as the LocalizationMiddleware class.
  • There is a conditional to check to see if the app is in production if you need to do anything specific such as force https.
  • The register method has a conditional for local development where you can register service providers that you only need for local development, since there is no point in registering them in a production environment.


The BladeServiceProvider registers any custom blade directives you want to be able to use in your blade files.

Laravel Boilerplate ships with 1 non-access related blade extensions:

  • A @langrtl directive, which checks to see if the current language in the session wants Right-to-Left support so you can update things accordingly.


The ComposerServiceProvider registers any view composers the application needs.


The EventServiceProvider is extended to use the $subscribers property to register the event listeners for the system.


The ObserverServiceProvider is used to register any model observer classes.

By default the supplied one registers the UserObserver class to the User model, which logs the users password history.


The only addition to the RouteServiceProvider is in the boot method.

Since most of the controller/routes use Laravels Route/Model Binding, there is one instance where we need to specify a binding.

We specify this binding for use in deleting/restoring a user, because the binding needs to know to have to check for deleted users as well. If you get rid of this and just use the default user binding, it will fail because it's not checking for a user id that has a non-null deleted_at timestamp.


Repositories are a way of extracting database logic into their own classes so you can have slim easy to read controllers.

Repositories are injected into any controller that needs them via the constructor, and are resolved out of the service container.

You do not have to use repositories, or repository/contract patterns, but it is good to learn ways to better structure your code instead of having bloated controllers.

Key Points

  • Repositories extend a base repository class to get included helper methods.
  • If you extend the base repository you must have a method called model() that returns the model that you will be working with.

Access Control

Role/Permission control has been replaced with spatie/laravel-permission in this version of the boilerplate.

Laravel Boilerplate ships with other access features as well:


  • Register/Login/Logout/Password Reset
  • Third party login (Github/Facebook/Twitter/Google/Linked In/BitBucket)
  • Account Confirmation By E-mail
  • Resend Confirmation E-mail
  • Option for Manual Account Confirmation by Admin
  • Login Throttling
  • Enable/Disable Registration
  • Force Single Session
  • Clear User Session
  • Password History
  • Password Expiration
  • Password Exposed
  • Administrator Management
    • User Index
    • Activate/Deactivate Users
    • Soft & Permanently Delete Users
    • Resend User Confirmation E-mails
    • Change Users Password
    • Create/Manage Roles
    • Manage Users Roles/Permissions
    • "Login As" User


 * Application captcha specific settings
'captcha' => [
     * Whether the registration captcha is on or off
    'registration' => env('REGISTRATION_CAPTCHA_STATUS', false),

 * Whether or not registration is enabled
'registration' => env('ENABLE_REGISTRATION', true),

 * Table names for access tables
'table_names' => [
    'users' => 'users',

 * Configurations for the user
'users' => [
     * Whether or not the user has to confirm their email when signing up
    'confirm_email' => env('CONFIRM_EMAIL', false),

     * Whether or not the users email can be changed on the edit profile screen
    'change_email' => env('CHANGE_EMAIL', false),

     * The name of the super administrator role
    'admin_role' => 'administrator',

     * The default role all new registered users get added to
    'default_role' => 'user',

     * Whether or not new users need to be approved by an administrator before logging in
     * If this is set to true, then confirm_email is not in effect
    'requires_approval' => env('REQUIRES_APPROVAL', false),

     * Login username to be used by the controller.
    'username' => 'email',

     * Session Database Driver Only
     * When active, a user can only have one session active at a time
     * That is all other sessions for that user will be deleted when they log in
     * (They can only be logged into one place at a time, all others will be logged out)
    'single_login' => true,

     * How many days before users have to change their passwords
     * false is off
    'password_expires_days' => env('PASSWORD_EXPIRES_DAYS', 30),

	 * The number of most recent previous passwords to check against when changing/resetting a password
	 * false is off which doesn't log password changes or check against them
	'password_history' => env('PASSWORD_HISTORY', 3),

* Configuration for roles
'roles' => [
     * Whether a role must contain a permission or can be used standalone as a label
    'role_must_contain_permission' => true,

 * Socialite session variable name
 * Contains the name of the currently logged in provider in the users session
 * Makes it so social logins can not change passwords, etc.
'socialite_session_name' => 'socialite_provider',


Both permission middleware from the spatie/laravel-permission package are used from their default locations and not extended, but you are free to extend them.

Blade Extensions


Laravel Boilerplate comes in many languages, each language has it's own folder as usual, the language files are very well organized and indented.

If you would like to contribute a language, please make a pull request based on the requirements.

The parts of the localization system are:

The language files try to be as organized as possible first by file name, then by keys frontend, backend, or global. Then by the 'type' they may be display, i.e. 'auth'. Please try to keep them organized if you are contributing to them on GitHub.


Helper Classes

There are a few misc. helper classes we have written that we couldn't find a good place for, and didn't want messy controllers with so we extracted them out as Helper classes.

They are located in the app\Helpers directory.

Any helpers that were deemed useful globally throughtout the application have folders in the root, and helpers that were to specific to a section have Frontend or Backend folders like many other places throughout the file structure.

Helper Globals

There is an app\helpers.php file which is autoloaded with composer that registers a few global functions for your convenience.


{{ app_name() }} returns the config value.


Global function for the Gravatar:: facade.

return gravatar()->get($user->email, ['size' => 50]);


Loops through a folder and requires all PHP files - See Routes.


Gets the home route of the user based off of their authentication level.


Include an HTML style call.


Include an HTML javascript call.


Creates a styled form cancel button that is used throughout.


Creates a styles form submit button that is used throughout.


Converts camelCase strings to their word equivalent.


The resources section has the same high level folder structure as a default installation, with many new items inside:


The webpack.mix.js file that ships with the project is well documented and pretty self-explanatory, it currently looks like:

const mix = require('laravel-mix');

 | Mix Asset Management
 | Mix provides a clean, fluent API for defining some Webpack build steps
 | for your Laravel application. By default, we are compiling the Sass
 | file for the application as well as bundling up all the JS files.


mix.sass('resources/sass/frontend/app.scss', 'css/frontend.css')
    .sass('resources/sass/backend/app.scss', 'css/backend.css')
    .js('resources/js/frontend/app.js', 'js/frontend.js')
    ], 'js/backend.js')

if (mix.inProduction() || process.env.npm_lifecycle_event !== 'hot') {



  • /backend - Contains the backend specific javascript to be compiled.
  • /frontend - Contains the frontend specific javascript to be compiled.
  • bootstrap.js - The Laravel javascript bootstrap file.
  • plugins.js - Contains useful plugins and snippets that would be beneficial globally.


  • /backend - Contains backend .scss files ready to be compiled into css.
  • /frontend - Contains frontend .scss files ready to be compiled into css.


See Localization.


  • /backend - The backend blade files.
  • /frontend - The frontend blade files
  • /includes - Blade files that are included in all master app layouts.
  • /vendor - Files generated from the vendor:publish command.


The test suite is currently comprised of over 100 tests and 500 assertions to test all of the sections in this documentation.

We will not go into detail here since they change so often, but with a fresh installation everything should pass if you have the right configurations.

To run the tests run phpunit from the command line in the root of the project.

Note: You will need to set up mail for all the tests to pass. I suggest a Mailtrap account for testing.


Flash Messages

The messages.blade.php file is included after the body of all master app layouts in this project, and takes care of displaying any errors from a session, validation, etc using bootstrap alert boxes.

If not a validation error, or message bag error, then the following session variables are supported:

  • flash_success - Bootstrap alert-success box.
  • flash_warning - Bootstrap alert-warning box.
  • flash_info - Bootstrap alert-info box.
  • flash_danger - Bootstrap alert-danger box.
  • flash_message - Bootstrap alert box.

You will see these used in many controller methods, or in exception handling except they use Laravel's magic method syntax.

Magic Methods

This application makes use of Laravel's magic methods in many places, especially controllers.

For example, you may see a controller return that looks like this:

return redirect()->route('admin.auth.user.index')->withFlashSuccess(trans('alerts.backend.users.created'));


return view('')->withUser($user);

In both of these examples you will see a compound function call, that doesn't exist in the documentation.

  • withFlashSuccess
  • withUser

Laravel will convert both of these methods to a default with() method when it compiles, so both of the above examples will output the following code.

return redirect()->route('admin.auth.user.index')->with('flash_success', trans('alerts.backend.users.created'));


return view('')->with('user', $user);

Both methods work, but I think the magic makes it more elegant so I use that throughout.

Action Buttons

Anywhere throughout the system that there is a table that allows CRUD operations, with associated buttons, the buttons (called action buttons) are held within a trait on the model.

We use this approach to make it easy to output buttons for each resource without having duplicate markup in multiple places, plus it takes care of the entity ID's and other stuff, such as converting all delete buttons for links that trigger a form instead of a form themselves. (This uses a method included in the global javascript plugin file.)

For example the buttons to the right of the users table in the backend, are generated in this trait.

public function getShowButtonAttribute()
    return '<a href="' . route('', $this) . '" class="btn btn-xs btn-info"><i class="fa fa-search" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="' . trans('buttons.general.crud.view') . '"></i></a> ';

This outputs the show button for each user row in the table with their respective ID and looks like this .

On interesting button to look at is the delete button:

public function getDeleteButtonAttribute()
    if ($this->id != auth()->id()) {
        return '<a href="' . route('admin.auth.user.destroy', $this) . '"
             data-trans-button-cancel="' . trans('buttons.general.cancel') . '"
             data-trans-button-confirm="' . trans('buttons.general.crud.delete') . '"
             data-trans-title="' . trans('strings.backend.general.are_you_sure') . '"
             class="btn btn-xs btn-danger"><i class="fa fa-trash" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="' . trans('buttons.general.crud.delete') . '"></i></a> ';

    return '';

Ignoring the if statement for this example, you can see that the delete button is actually a link. But that's insecure, isn't it? Actually no, take note of the data-method="delete" property of the link.

If you look at the source of the delete button you will see this:

<a data-method="delete" data-trans-button-cancel="Cancel" data-trans-button-confirm="Delete" data-trans-title="Are you sure?" class="btn btn-xs btn-danger" style="cursor:pointer;" onclick="$(this).find("form").submit();"><i class="fa fa-trash" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="Delete"></i>
<form action="" method="POST" name="delete_item" style="display:none">
   <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="delete">
   <input type="hidden" name="_token" value="YOUR_CSRF_TOKEN">

Because of this function, all data-method="delete" property get a form injected inside them that calls a DELETE route, it also takes care of popping up an "are you sure you want to delete?" alert box before resuming.

Note: The other data-* methods on the link take care of injecting the appropriate language into the sweetalert alert box that pops up which looks like this:


Finally each attribute trait has a last method called getActionButtonsAttribute() which concatinates all of the button methods together and displays all of the buttons at once like:


Displays: (Actual look may vary between versions)

Note: The getActionButtonsAttribute() method is another example of Laravel magic.


To configure socialite, add your credentials to your .env file. The redirects must follow the convention Available services are github, facebook, linkedin, bitbucket, twitter, and google. The links on the login page are generated based on which credentials are provided in the .env file.


You must set permissions of your OAuth consumer to at least Account: Read and Repositories: Read

Also: In order for this option to work, email must be nullable on the users table, as well as the unique email table key removed. Do this at your own risk. There is no other option I know of for now.


No known quirks, should work as is.


If you are getting an Access Not Configured error message:

Activate the Google+ API from the Google Developers Console.


For the Given URL is not allowed by the Application error message:

  1. Go to basic settings for your app
  2. Select Add Platform
  3. Select Website
  4. Put URL in the Site URL

Linked In

r_basicprofile and r_emailaddress must be selected in Default Application Permissions.

The callback URL must be submitted under the OAuth 2.0 section.


For Twitter to grab the user's email address for you application, it must be whitelisted as explained here:


If you are getting a cURL error 60 on localhost, follow these directions.


If for any reason something goes wrong, try each of the following:

Delete the composer.lock file

Run the dumpautoload command

$ composer dumpautoload -o

If the above fails to fix, and the command line is referencing errors in compiled.php, do the following:

Delete the storage/framework/compiled.php file

If all of the above don't work please report here.


When pushing your app to production, you should make sure you run the following:

yarn prod

Compress all of you assets into a single file specified in webpack.mix.js.

Config Caching php artisan config:cache

Caches all of your configuration files into a single file.

Route Caching php artisan route:cache

If your application is exclusively using controller based routes, you should take advantage of Laravel's route cache. Using the route cache will drastically decrease the amount of time it takes to register all of your application's routes. In some cases, your route registration may even be up to 100x faster!